Home Page of Dr. David A. Roffman (PhD, Physics)
Been There, Done That on Earth, What Planet's Next? But nobody is going to walk on Mars if NASA and other space agencies ignore the data on this web site (don't worry, they're not). Updated 2/20/2017.
WHO READS THIS SITE? We did not start to look up the IP addresses of those who were reading this site until the fall of 2014. When we did we were surprised to see that readers fell into the following categories: (1) NASA and the U.S. military; (2) The Kremlin and other Russian sites (which are apparently associated with their space program); (3) European, Chinese and Japanese sites which are associated with universities interested in spaceflight. In five cases we were able to make a direct link to the European Space Agency; as well as the German and Spanish Space Agencies. However immediately before and very much after the ESA's ExoMars 2016 crash there was a surge in readers from the Thales-Alena Space-Italy Group which was responsible for the entry and descent of ExoMars 2016; (4) university students looking for help with computer programming or basic physics, and (5) others who appear to be just the curious. I don't maintain an active blog on this site. My father does on his MarsCorrect.com site. The Mars-related articles found here are usually carried on his site too, so unless you want to make a job offer to me, please contact him via his blog there or at his e-mail address at email@example.com. Note: now that I have my PhD in physics (after completing my postdoc at Yale) I am open to all job offers that are intellectually and financially rewarding
This site serves mostly as a place where I can maintain the data found, and like Wikipedia, make the data available to anyone in public or government domains who has an interest in science. For NASA the goal is to help them correct a serious shortfall in data analysis. I and my father are available to help NASA correct errors, but we will not support disinformation. As mentioned above, we are aware that this site is heavily monitored by the Russian Government. While they are welcome to read our material, we are not available to help them unless the decision is made to launch a joint U.S. - Russian manned mission to Mars. We are available to help other space non-Communist space agencies including those of Israel, India, Europe and Japan.
MarsCorrect.Com Portal: The Mars-related articles on this DavidARoffman.Com site often require update in light of new findings from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover. I do my best to keep this material current, but while I work on my PhD in solid state physics I don’t always have the time required to update the Mars articles. As such, since the end of March 2014 my father has been updating these particular articles and posting them on his site at MarsCorrect.Com. See The Table of Contents there and its links. Where differences exist between what is written there and what is found there, use the data at the newer site, however please be aware that my father may at times make some assertions about data interpretation that I have not yet seen, or do not agree with. Questions about information found there should be sent to him at MarsCorrect@gmail.com.
Below: 14th International Mars Society Convention in Dallas, Texas (2011). Left to right: Pat Duggins, National Public Radio of Alabama; CNN Space Correspondent John Zarrella; David Roffman, and Barry Roffman
MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA Note: Earlier versions of this report went under the titles of Martian Air Pressures Are far Higher Than NASA Asserts and also Higher Than Advertised Martian Air Pressure. This 920-page report was published on January 29, 2017.
Mars Society Presentation PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - Part 1 by David. Roffman. Posted September 9, 2012.
Most recent PowerPoint: MARS CORRECT? MARS IS WET! Published January 29, 2017.
MARS CORECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA
By Barry S. Roffman (BarrySRoffman@GMail.Com)
Technical Advice by David A. Roffman (DavidARoffman.GMail.Com)
(January 29, 2017)
ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 7 year study critiques 1,590 Sols (well over two full Martian years) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REM) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar). For MSL there was a mean pressure of 11.49 mbar measured on its Sol 370. When we made an issue of it with JPL, it was revised to 8.65 mbar. The REMS Team then published pressures of 11.77 mbar (for Sol 1,160) and 12 mbar (for Sol 1,161). Again we made an issue of it again it, and they revised the figures to 8.98 and 8.97 mbar respectively. When they asserted a pressure 1154Pa for Sol 1301, we challenged it and they revised it to 752 Pa. In fact we demonstrate that JPL/REMS weather data was frequently revised after they studied critiques in working versions of this report and on our websites at http://marscorrect.com and http://davidaroffman.com.
Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes. We link this to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurement failures are disclosed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems are highlighted with respect to confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons, dust storm opacity, snow at Phoenix, excessive aero braking, liquid water running on the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.
PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - PART 2 by Barry S. Roffman. Posted August 18, 2011.
ABSTRACT FOR PART 2 by Barry S. Roffman (November 6, 2012): After a cursory review of the Viking Project Data it became apparent that an extensive audit was imperative. The Viking Project Data did not seem to explain weather phenomena (spiral clouds over Arsia Mons, dust devils, etc.) clearly seen on Mars. A general discussion of the problems is offered in the Basic Report by David Roffman. The data audit results are presented in seven Annexes. The Viking Project data divides every Martian day into 25 time-bins (hours), each ~59 minutes long. Annex A (Viking 1 sols 1 to 350) and Annex B (Viking 2 sols 156 to 361) emphasize how pressures change during morning time-bins that correspond to 0630 to 0830. A simple formula, Pressure predicted = (6.51 mbar*255.77 K)/Temperature K measured, was often correct for 0730. Annex C examines how often the pressure sensor did not work (stuck or no pressures) between Viking 2 sols 639 and 799. Annex D examines the percent differences between hourly predictions and reported pressures for Viking 1 from sols 1 to 350. Annex E focuses on predictions and reported pressures for the 0.3 (0730) and .34 (0830) time-bins. Annex F maps out the best and worst prediction times each day, clearly proving the influence of the RTG heaters on hourly pressure reports. Annex G shows what went wrong in the transducer selection and testing process. These Annexes provide hard evidence that the Tavis pressure transducers used for the Vikings (and Pathfinder) likely jammed with dust during the landing process. The meaning of this is that it is doubtful that they ever measured ambient pressure conditions of Mars. There is evidence that all subsequent attempts to measure pressure were colored by the reported Viking results. Problems with Phoenix pressures based on a Vaisala transducer are discussed in the Basic Report. Annex I discusses the the initial pressure results in from the MSL with a focus on its sols 15 to 87 (Ls 158.8 to 199.8) which occurred between August 22 and November 3, 2012.
|Annex Abstract||Overview of data in the Annexes||A-1|
|ANNEX A||VIKING 1 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES and Mars Time-Bin Clock. http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20A%203%20SEP%202013.pdf||A-2 toA-59|
|ANNEX A Appendix 1||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20A%203%20SEP%202013.pdf||A-3 to A-22|
|Appendix 2||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134-199.||A-23 toA-34|
|Appendix 3||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.||A-35 to A-38|
|Appendix 4||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304||A-39 to A-50|
|Appendix 5||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334||A-51 to A-55|
|Appendix 6||VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350||A-56 to A-59|
|ANNEX B||VIKING 2 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGEShttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20B%209%20September%202013.pdf||B-1 to B-39|
|Appendix 1||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175||B-2 to B-5|
|Appendix 2||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.||B-6 to B-10|
|Appendix 3||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.||B-11 to B-20|
|Appendix 4||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.||B-21 to B-26|
|Appendix 5||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291-305.||B-27 to B-30|
|Appendix 6||VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361||B-31 to B-39|
|ANNEX C||VIKING 2 STUCK PRESSURE GAUGEhttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20C%209%20September%202013.pdf||C-1 to C-54|
|ANNEX D||PERCENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEASURED PRESSURES ON VIKING AND GAY-LUSSAC/ AMONTON’S LAW-BASED PREDICTIONS http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20D%20%209%20September%202013.pdf||D-1 to D-171|
|Appendix 1||Viking 1 Sols 1 to 199||D-3 to D-94|
|Appendix 2||Viking 1 Sols 200 to 350||D-95 to D-171|
|ANNEX E||Measured vs. Predicted Pressure Percent Differences for Viking-1 Time-bins 0.3 and 0.34 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20E%209%20September%202013.pdf||E-1 to E-14|
|ANNEX F||Percent Difference Experimental Summaryhttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20F%20%2010%20September%202013.pdf||F-1 to F-18|
|Appendix 1||Percent Difference Flow Chart for Viking 1 Sols 1 to 116 & 200 to 350||F-5 to F-16|
|Appendix 2||Histogram with temperatures at successful predictions per time-bins||F-17 to F-18|
|ANNEX G||Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Resultshttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20G%2010%20September%202013.pdf||G-1 to G-13|
|ANNEX H||Calibration Effort for the Mars Pathfinder Tavis Pressure Transducer and IMP Windsock Experimenthttp://marscorrect.com/Annex%20H%20%209%20September%202013.pdf||H-1 to H-43|
|ANNEX I||Pressures Reported by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS).http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20I%209%20September%202013.pdf||I-1 to I-28|
|Appendix 1||Print Screen Record of Original REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Reports||I-12 to I-28|
|ANNEX J||Concessions by Ashima Research and How to Correctly Calculate Daylight Hours for MSLhttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20J%20%209%20September%202013.pdf||J- 1to J-19|
|ANNEX K||REMS Team and Ashima Research Weather Reports from Sol 15 to Sol 299.http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20L%2010%20SEP%202013.pdf||K-1 to K-34|
|ANNEX L||How Martian Day Length Varies with Ls and Latitudehttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20L%20July%2014%202014.pdf||L-1 to L-10|
|ANNEX M||One Year of MSL Weather Reports http://marscorrect.com/Annex%20M%20JULY%2014%202014.pdf||M-1 to M-38|
|ANNEX N||Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 151 to Ls 270 (late winter to end of spring), Sols 670 to 864 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20N.pdf||N-1 to N-13|
|ANNEX O||Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 270 to Ls 0 (summer), Sols 865 to 1,020 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20O.pdf||O-1 to O-11|
|ANNEX P||Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 0 to Ls 90 (autumn), Sols 1019 to 1,213 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20P.pdf||P-1 to P-15|
|ANNEX Q||Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Winter until the End of MSL Year 2 (Ls 90 to Ls 150, Sols 1,213 to 1,338) http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20Q.pdf||Q-1 to Q-14|
|ANNEX R||Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation and Pressures at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20R.pdf||R-1 to R-28|
|ANNEX S||Two Martian Years of MSL High Air and Ground Temperatureshttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20S.pdf||S-1 to S-41|
|ANNEX T||Two Martian Years of MSL Low Air and Ground Temperatureshttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20T%20TO.pdf||T-1 to T-64|
PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - Part 1 by David. Roffman. Posted September 9, 2012.
PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - PART 2 by Barry S. Roffman. Posted August 18, 2011.
MY NOTES FOLLOW FOR THE TEXTBOOK FRONTIERS IN PROPULSION SCIENCE (Edited by Marc G. Millis and Eric M. Davis; published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.). The book, hereafter referred to only as The Textbook, provides up to date information for engineering physics as it relates to spaceship propulsion. Originally I posted questions (highlighted in red) to pursue at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University where I earned a B.S. in space physics. However, it only took me 5 semesters to earn my B.S., and much of that time was spent researching the density of the Martian atmosphere. This means that some of the questions remain to be addressed as I pursue a PhD in physics.